H̱orvot Meẕada

Masada, Hebrew H̱orvot Meẕada (“Ruins of Masada”), ancient mountaintop fortress (‬ metsada, “fortress”) in southeastern Israel, site of the Jews’ last stand against the Romans after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 ce. Masada occupies the entire top of an isolated mesa near the southwest coast of the Dead Sea. The rhomboid-shaped mountain towers 1,424 […]

Zion Fortress and the Spring Citadel of City of David

Archeological digs in the Biblical City of David started in 1867 – exactly 100 years before the city returned to Jewish control – by The Palestine Exploration Fund (P.E.F), led by Captain Charles Warren. But the first excavator to reach the thick of the fortress, without even realizing it at the time, was a treasure […]

Excavations under Wilson’s Arch, near the Western Wall in Jerusalem

Last year eight stone courses of the Western Wall that had been buried under an 8-meter layer of earth were uncovered in excavations conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority in the Western Wall Tunnels in Jerusalem. These stone courses, completely preserved, are built of massive stones and are outstanding in the quality of their construction. […]

Exodus: History, myth, folktale, truth

Professor Charles R. Krahmalkov in the pages of Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR), wrote “In Biblical studies truth is often only a matter of personal opinion, or a test of scholarly perceptions, or a momentary consensus.” We would not so much agree with that. For us the Truth would be to cling to the literal word […]

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the site of Golgotha

The second Protestant church in Jerusalem (the first being Christ Church near Jaffa Gate) the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer its bell tower dominates the Old City skyline of Jerusalem. The Evangelical Jerusalem Foundation, one of the three foundations of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) in the Holy Land owns the building which was […]

Hazor: Canaanite Metropolis

During the 30 excavation seasons conducted at the site of ancient Hazor, where in 2013 an Egyptian sphinx was discovered, it became clear that this was the largest and most important city-state in the Land of Israel in the second millennium BCE. At its floruit, Hazor spanned c. 200 acres, 10 times the size of Jerusalem […]

Ammonites, Moabites and Edomites

According to the Bible, the Ammonites were descendants of Ben-ammi, who was the son of Lot (Abraham’s nephew) and Lot’s younger daughter; the Moabites were descendants of Moab, the son of Lot and his oldest daughter; and the Edomites were descendants of Esau, Jacob’s twin and Isaac’s oldest son. The ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupyed the […]