Finding and Understanding Words and Meanings

Verbalkonkordanz or Concordance

Having found a way to read the Bible, using some dictionaries and a concordance, an alphabetical list of the principal words used in the Book of  books, the Bible, with their immediate contexts, you can find people around you to talk about the read material, but you can also find articles on the net about the verses or chapters in the Bible. Those thoughts of other can help you to see how they interpret it and how you understand it.

First page of Areopagitica, by John Milton

First page of Areopagitica, by John Milton (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

John Milton. (1608–1674) wrote in his Areopagitica: “Truth is compared in Scripture to a streaming fountain; if her waters flow not in a perpetual progression, they sicken into a muddy pool of conformity and tradition. A man may be a heretic in the truth; and if he believe things only because his pastor says so, or the Assembly so determines, without knowing other reason, though his belief be true, yet the very truth he holds, becomes his heresy. There is not any burden that some would gladder post off to another, than the charge and care of their religion.”

Truth or Believe, not because a pastor says so

It is not, or should not, because a pastor says so, that you should believe it. You always have to question everything in front of you.

Milton continues “To him he adheres, resigns the whole warehouse of his religion, with all the locks and keys into his custody; and indeed makes the very person of that man his religion; esteems his associating with him a sufficient evidence and commendatory of his own piety.”

He recognised that “the gatherings and savings of a sober graduateship”,  “Truth indeed came once into the world with her divine master, and was a perfect shape most glorious to look on: but when he ascended, and his apostles after him were laid asleep, then straight arose a wicked race of deceivers, who as that story goes of the Egyptian Typhon with his conspirators, how they dealt with the good Osiris, took the virgin Truth, hewed her lovely form into a thousand pieces, and scattered them to the four winds.” Jesus was not dead for a long time and there where already teachers going around twisting the words of the Master Teacher Jeshua.

Milton wrote: “The light which we have gained, was given us, not to be ever staring on, but by it to discover onward things more remote from our knowledge. It is not the unfrocking of a priest, the unmitering of a bishop, and the removing him from off the Presbyterian shoulders that will make us a happy nation, no, if other things as great in the church, and in the rule of life both economical and political be not looked into and reformed, we have looked so long upon the blaze that Zuinglius and Calvin hath beaconed up to us, that we are stark blind. There be who perpetually complain of schisms and sects, and make it such a calamity that any man dissents from their maxims. ’Tis their own pride and ignorance which causes the disturbing, who neither will hear with meekness, nor can convince, yet all must be suppressed which is not found in their Syntagma.” {Summary of doctrine by John Milton}

Many words and books and lots of philosophy

We have been offered many books in the past about the teachings of Jesus Christ and about the Biblical Words. Many studies of learning in her deepest sciences have been so ancient, and so eminent among us, that writers of good antiquity, and ablest judgement have been persuaded that even the school of Pythagoras, and the Persian wisdom should be branded in our souls. But we do not have to known all the philosophers their thinking, we even better abstain from philosophy.

Justin, one of the earliest Christian Apologists, though claiming to reject pagan philosophy, was the first to use philosophical language and concepts to express “Christian” ideas, considering this type of philosophy “to be safe and profitable.

Perseus

Perseus (Photo credit: OwenEvans00)

Christian thinking did not grow out of the Greek philosopy but was based on a much older way of thinking brought by the ancient Hebrew writers and prophets. Many times comparisons were made between Greek gods and Bible characters. They took on the name Jesus (Hail Zeus) for Jeshua and compared him to Perseus; and Mary’s conception to that of Perseus’ mother, Danaë, who was said to be also a virgin. Jesus being called “the Logos,” meaning God’s “Word,” or Spokesman. (John 1:1-3, 14-18; Revelation 19:11-13) Very early on, this teaching was distorted by Justin, who like a philosopher played on the two possible meanings of the Greek word logos: “word” and “reason.” Christians, he said, received the word in the person of Christ himself. However, logos in the sense of reason is found in every man, including pagans. Thus, he concluded, those who live in harmony with reason are Christians, even those who claimed or were thought to be atheists, like Socrates and others. Moreover, by forcing the tie between Jesus and the logos of Greek philosophy, which was closely linked with the person of God, the apologists, including Tertullian, embarked on a course that eventually led Christianity to the Trinity dogma.

In case we do want to reason we should do it going our from the Bible Books as they may be presented to us,  in different translations. In the beginning of Christianity the apostle Paul warned already for the dangers of philosophy.

“Beware lest any man spoils you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after the Messiah.” (Colossians 2:8 KJBPNV)

Tradition of words and views

In the church a tradition was built up to look at the words and phrases of the Bible from a philosophical point of view, introducing many of the visions of Plato, Sophocles and other ancient writers. As such also wrong teachings came into Christianity. This happened already in the time of the apostles but when the first-century Christian apostles died, apostate church leaders increasingly deviated from Christ’s teachings, just as God’s Word had foretold. (Acts 20:29, 30) A corrupted church eventually became more and more entangled with the secular state. Following the philosophers many church leaders also started on taking their ideas about the universe as being true, and ignoring what is written in the Scriptures. This way the idea of Aristotle’s concept of the universe, influenced by the thinking of Greek mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras (sixth century B.C.E.)who established a community of followers in Croton who adhered to a way of life he prescribed, made the earth the centre of the universe, rejecting the idea of a void, or space, believing that a moving earth would be subject to friction and would grind to a halt without the application of constant force. The principles of Pythagoreanism, including belief in the immortality and reincarnation of the soul and in the liberating power of abstinence and asceticism, influenced the thought of Plato and Aristotle and contributed to the development of mathematics and Western rational philosophy.

Eikonoklastes

Eikonoklastes (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Many words from the Bible where taken out of context and placed in the philosophical view. From that view we should take distance from such thinking and substantiate to the original thoughts and meanings of those words. Knowledge of the historical language is important and looking at the words how they are used in several books.  To do this we do have to find the words in the other books. Therefore we can use some help-tools.

Word-tools, cross-references and Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible

The most important concordance  is the very well-known of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822–1894): Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, generally known as Strong’s Concordance, first published in 1890, with the help of more than 100 colleagues.
It is an exhaustive cross-reference of every word in the KJV back to the word in the original text, by Dr. Strong who was Professor of exegetical theology at Drew Theological Seminary at the time.

Most of the exhaustive concordances and many other Bible reference books use the numbering system used in Strong’s. The system assigns a number to each and every Greek and Hebrew word used in the autographic text. The concordance will list every verse where a specific English word is found in the English translation for which the concordance is made. The English words are listed in alphabetical order just like a dictionary.

The good thing about the book is that it does not want to provide any commentary on the Bible, but just offers an index of the root words. In such a way you as reader can find words where they appear in the Bible. This index allows a student of the Bible to re-find a phrase or passage previously studied. It also lets the reader directly compare how the same word may be used elsewhere in the Bible. In this way Strong’s Notes provides an independent check against translations, and offers an opportunity for greater, and more technically accurate understanding of text. The Strong’s is nothing less than exhaustive, listing every Hebrew and Greek word used in the entire Bible (including “the,” “if,” “it,” “and,” “but,” and “or”), listing every time each word occurs, and giving a short excerpt of the sentence in which each word is found. To compliment the exhaustive concordance, Strong’s includes Hebrew and Greek dictionaries.

The most useful improvement for the modern day scholar is the cross-referencing of the variant spellings of proper names from modern translations (which differ from the King James spellings of the same names). Strong’s has made such an impact upon modern Bible study that many scholarly works, including the most recent editions of the classic “Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names” (Alfred Jones, 1856), are keyed to the numbering system employed by the Strong’s Bible Concordance.

Some people are wrong to think the Strong’s list present a translation tool. Since Strong’s Concordance identifies the original words in Hebrew and Greek, Strong’s numbers are sometimes misinterpreted by those without adequate training to change the Bible from its accurate meaning simply by taking the words out of cultural context.
The use of Strong’s numbers does not consider figures of speech, metaphors, idioms, common phrases, cultural references, references to historical events, or alternate meanings used by those of the time period to express their thoughts in their own language at the time. As such, professionals and amateurs alike must consult a number of contextual tools to reconstruct these cultural backgrounds. Many scholarly Greek and Hebrew Lexicons (e.g., Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon, Thayer’s Greek Dictionary, and Vine’s Bible Dictionary) also use Strong’s numbers for cross-referencing, encouraging hermeneutical approaches to study.

Different concordances

Alexander Cruden’s Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures. First published 1737. The first entry, for example, ‘abase’ appears in the King James Version of the Bible (KJV) four times; in the books of Job, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. The header of the column of the first entry, ‘abi’, is the first three letters of the last entry on that page.

Alexander Cruden also offered a “A Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures”, generally known as Cruden’s Concordance, first published in 1737, though it may miss out some words, it could be very useful as well.

Strong did not warn to analyse the words. The Strong’s dictionaries can be used to provide a compact, shorthand, quick gloss. In Robert Young’s Analytical Concordance to the Bible here is no searching in a separate Hebrew and Greek Lexicon for the precise original word. The precise original Hebrew and Greek word(s) occur underneath the alphabetical listing for the English word or translation. Each entry can contain the multiple original language word in the original language and in a phonetic vocalization into English and can give an analysis of the English words: for example, several different Greek or Hebrew words can be translated by one English word. Young shows this by analysing the English word showing all of the Greek or Hebrew words it translates and then lists the verses containing each occurrence of the various Greek or Hebrew words. This can make for more accurate word studies.

Young’s Analytical Concordance casts all words in the Bible into alphabetical order and arranges them under their respective original words, according to their Greek or Hebrew words; in addition to the English, and attempts to bring out shades of meaning between the different Hebrew and Greek words translated by the same English word, so that there is no need (in many cases) to look up a number and then to check for that number as a second step. This is handy for everyone, regardless of whether you know Greek or Hebrew, as you can quickly see all the Greek (or Hebrew) words that are the same original word and helps the reader to analyse more accurately the various uses of the original Hebrew and Greek words. This makes word studies much easier to do (than with Concordances such as Strong’s or Cruden’s).

One of the preferred English Bibles by the Belgian Christadelphians is next to the King James its American revision: The Revised Version, Standard American Edition of the Bible, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV),  released in 1901. Rooted in the work that was done with the Revised Version (RV) in 1870, American religious leaders invited Baptist, Congregationalist, Dutch Reformed, Friends, Methodist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, and Unitarian scholars to bring an acceptable literal translation in Elizabethan English. In the 21° Century the Belgian Christadelphians brought a Dutch translation of this version, de Standaard Amerikaanse Versie Vertaling (SAVV)

Because its excessive literalism, it never achieved wide popularity, but is most important for us, because we better read the Bible in the most accurate and literal translation.

Concordance of Bible Words, Names, and Expressions

After long negotiations, the Watch Tower Society was able to purchase, in 1944, the use of the plates of the complete American Standard Version of the Bible for printing on its own presses. On August 10, 1944, at Buffalo, New York, the key city of 17 simultaneous assemblies of Jehovah’s Witnesses linked together by private telephone lines, the Society’s president delighted his large audience by releasing the Watch Tower edition of the American Standard Version. The appendix includes a most helpful expanded “Concordance of Bible Words, Names, and Expressions.” A pocket edition of the same Bible was published in 1958.

In 1972 the Watch Tower Society produced The Bible in Living English, by the late Steven T. Byington, who worked on it form 1898 to 1943, also with an index at the back.

Again the same organisation brought a new literal translation with a concordance in 1949 which was to become the printed in parts from 1949 onwards until 1960.  In the summer of 1961, at a series of assemblies of Jehovah’s Witnesses held in the United States and Europe, a revised edition of the complete New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in one handy volume was released for distribution. Bound in green cloth, it contained 1,472 pages and had an excellent concordance, an appendix on Bible topics, and maps.

New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures i...

New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in various languages and versions (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1984 a New World Translations was published without any footnotes, and this is one of the several bibles which should be on the recommendation list. Designed for the serious Bible student, it contains over 125,000 marginal references, more than 11,000 footnotes, an extensive concordance, maps, and 43 appendix articles. Also in 1984, a regular-size edition of the 1984 revision, with marginal references but without footnotes so that it can be used by any denomination, not interfering with their ideas, but leaving the Bible student to make up his own thinking, not interfering with bringing in denominational thoughts, what so many Bible translations do when published with their footnotes.

In 1985 the New International Version Study Bible featured the text of the New International Version with study notes keyed to and listed with Bible verses, introductions and outlines to books of the Bibel, text notes, a cross-reference system with 100.000 entries, parallel passages, a concordance with over 35 000 references, plus charts, maps, essays and comprehensive indexes.

A Topical index of Scripture with a concordance to the New American Standard Bible (NASB) was worked out in the 1986,1995 Ryrie Study bible (Expanded edition updated in 1995)

In 1988-1999 the NAB Catholic Serendipity Bible provided Topical Study Groups, Lectionary-Based Groups, Subject Index and dictionary Concordance was presented.

In 1999 Holman Bible Publishers published a 350 pages Holman Bible Concordance for Kids: A Personal Guide Through the Word for Kids who want Aanswers.

In 2001 Crossway Bibles, a division of Good News Publishers provided the English Standard Version (ESV) Cross Reference System for the ESV Concordance, which was adapted form the English Revised Version Cross-Reference System.

In 2002 John Kohlenberger and James Swanson corrected and filled in omissions into the time-honored Strong’s concordance and improved it with large, readable type. Word studies have been simplified and special care has been taken to maximize the thoroughness and ease of use. Special features include:  Computer-verified accuracy, Strong’s numbering system for word studies in Greek and Hebrew,  Goodrick-Kohlenberger numbers in the dictionary indexes that correspond to a growing library of reference tools that use these numbers; the most up-to-date Hebrew and Greek dictionaries,  Cross-references to places and names used in Bible translations besides the KJV, Word counts of every word in the Bible, Fast-Tab locators.

Seeing the connection to other verses

(KJV) 1631 Holy Bible, Robert Barker/John Bill...

(KJV) 1631 Holy Bible, Robert Barker/John Bill, London. King James Version (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

If we want to read the Bible, to study it, think about it, reflect upon it, we should have a concordance or Bible index  close at hand, for that is the only way to quickly see the connection to other verses and of getting it into our minds and our hearts. Not enough people are making use of those interesting tools which should be a standard tool for any Bible student. To help us we should also make use of, to my mind the best cross reference work, the New American Standard Cross References and  Nave’s Topical Bible, Torrey’s Topical Textbook, and The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge.

Cross-references, Bible Topics and the concordance in the back of the Bible can be of great help in our study of the Bible but also in our preaching to help us give Scriptural answers, because we are always better to let the Bible speak for it self.

While the Concordance gives a word search (by translation), the Expository Dictionary may be an original language help, the Bible Dictionary / Encycopaedia will give extra info about Bible, terms, places and people.

The problem with concordances given at the back of the bible is that they only give a very confined or summary list of references. In case you want to do a thorough Bible Study I would advice to get an exhaustive concordance or an electronic bible study tool like the one the Christadelphians offer for free.

Remember always to find the specific the underlying root word in the Hebrew or Greek which has been translated into English as the word, which you can recognise at the number, and compare those verses with the same word number.

Root words in different languages

Your Bible lists occurrences of the words of your chosen language, be it Dutch, French, German, English or any other. Strong’s lists occurrences of a Greek or Hebrew lemmas (root words) regardless of how they are translated into English. The bigger concordances in your own language shall look at the Hebrew and Greek root words and the possible words which may be used to present the idea of the Hebrew and Greek in your own language.
An etymological dictionary shall be of a lot of use to have a better insight in the words used in a certain situation or by a certain writer who shall always write in the manner he has been brought up in his language and to whom he is addressing.
Because a single lemma can be used in multiple ways depending on context you as Bible student have to carefully look for the lemma associated with the word you are investigating. Figure out which verses use the word in a similar way grammatically, contextually and thematically. The verses which most closely reflect the lemma’s use in your primary study verse will help you understand how it should be understood in context. Consider what other parts of speech it is combined with and especially how it interacts with them.

For those who know also other languages it is best to use a concordance in both language, which may sometimes bring out some surprises.

The varying glosses (definitions) of a single root typically have a very similar meaning and reflect only varying nuances of meaning. There are, however, many words which have multiple distinct meanings depending on the manner of the word’s usage. This can lead to a “mix-and-match” interpretation where the reader picks a gloss to use based on a) a best guess, b) what they want the passage to say, or even c) at random. {Dave Moser}

Not only should we be aware of the biblical writers writing in different times, having to talk or write to defferent people, but also having translations having made their choice of words in different times.

Always remember: “The manner in which an author uses a word, not its Strong’s definition, determines its meaning.”

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Next: Absolute Basics to Reading the Bible

Please find to read:

  1. How to Use a Bible and Concordance By Jeff A. Benner
  2. How to use a Concordance by  “Yes Lord” Ministries
  3. How Not To Use Strong’s Concordance
  4. How To Properly Use Strong’s Concordance
  5. How to Interpret Greek and Hebrew for Yourself
  6. How to do a Verse Study of Mark 10:45
  7. How to do a Word Study of “Serve”
  8. Studying the Bible through Reflective Writing
  9. What is the Coptic Language and Why is it Important?
  10. Bible guide
  11. The Importance Of Scripture
  12. The importance of Reading the Scriptures
  13. Follower of Jesus part of a cult or a Christian
  14. Breathing to teach
  15. Loving the Word

In Dutch:

  1. What is the Sahidic and when did it come into existence?
  2. Concordantie Statenvertaling – concordance to the Old Dutch Staten Translation
  3. Psalmen naar kernwoord of thema

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  1. Spelling Yahshuah (יהשע) vs Hebrew using Yehoshuah (יהושע)
  2. Why can Jesus be translated to mean “hail Zeus”
  3. Altered to fit a Trinity
  4. Written to recognise the Promissed One

  5. Zeus een heerser van hemel en aarde
  6. Heil tot de gezondene van God of Zeus
  7. Yahushua, Yehoshua, Yeshua, Jehoshua of Jeshua
  8. God is Love vs Eternal Torture…Sadism or Justice? Bible or Tradition?
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The free Bible software program: Online Bible:
Download the free Online Bible Basic Program
Explore the download library to find extra titles
Use the User Manual to profit from the Online Bible software features Add the modern Bible version you prefer
Christadelphians can request extra files of Christadelphian commentaries. (Please do contact the Belgian Christadelphians.)
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Free online Concordances: Biblestudy tools concordances
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Google Books Zondervan Niv Exhaustive Concordance: Zondervan Niv Exhaustive Concordance

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  • Other Translations: NKJVIt seems appropriate to examine a few other translations that could be useful in this search. Thus, I will consider NKJV and NAS95. And then a quick look at a couple more recent ones: CEB (Common English Bible) and NABRE (New American Bible Revised Edition). In this post I will comment on the NKJV (New King James Version).
  • Ten Questions to Ask a Christian: My Responses (wellspentjourney.wordpress.com)
    I hold to the inerrancy of the autographic text of Scripture. Obviously not all manuscript copies are perfectly preserved.
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    there is sometimes confusion between inerrancy and strict Biblical literalness. To borrow a line from the Chicago Statement: “history must be treated as history, poetry as poetry, hyperbole and metaphor as hyperbole and metaphor, generalization and approximation as what they are, and so forth.”
  • 15 Undeniable Truths For Theological Reflection (#2) (instrument-rated-theology.com)
    The books of the Bible, even the most difficult sections, were written for the purpose of being understood.
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    The task of Bible study is not to search the Bible to give support to one of our cherished opinions, then turn to our favorite book of poetry to close out the lesson. The task of Bible study is to carefully and intentionally ask some very basic questions of the text, and then, if possible, to see if there is a legitimate parallel between the text and our situation. If there is a legitimate parallel, fine. But if there is not, then we cannot force a foreign meaning upon the text with a crow bar, a shoe horn and an can of axle grease.
  • My Take: Counting the Bible’s words doesn’t yield a Republican Jesus (religion.blogs.cnn.com)
    “The American Jesus is more a pawn than a king, pushed around in a complex game of cultural (and countercultural) chess, sacrificed here for this cause and there for another.”This problem of mistaking your God for the God the problem, that is, of idolatry was captured beautifully by Albert Schweitzer, who suggested that scholars on a quest for the “historical Jesus” were looking down into a deep well and seeing not the real Jesus but reflections of themselves.
  • Why did Milton write his theology in Latin? (oup.com)
    John Milton wrote his systematic theology, De Doctrina Christiana, his “dearest possession,” in Latin — usual for a theological work, but with many unusual aspects.Language was a choice, not a foregone conclusion. Continental theologians could be rendered into English (for instance, the work by Johannes Wolleb); English theologians could write in Latin (William Ames); and English philosophers could write in both tongues (Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes). So Milton chose Latin in addressing Universis Christi Ecclesiis(“the universal churches of Christ”).The choice says much about his milieu. European education and culture were bilingual. Just as Dante used Latin to say why he wrote the Divine Comedy in the vernacular, one of the King James Version (KJV) Bible translators took his notes of their discussions of the English in Latin. Latin was the air they breathed. Milton sought a European reputation through his voluminous Latin, half his total output. When he speaks of “liberty’s defence, my noble task, / Of which all Europe talks from side to side,” that’s thanks to Latin.
  • Committed to witness! (jacobjuncker.wordpress.com)
    God simply wants us to walk with Christ and tell people about the amazing things we see along the way.  God desires that we be witnesses of Jesus Christ so that we can bear witness to God’s love active in the world God so loved and came to save.
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    We cannot share what we do not know.  We cannot give what we have not received.  Therefore, before we can share our faith story (bear witness), we must first be a witness to the love of God found in Jesus Christ.
  • Truth in the Bible (Truth 103). (truthseekinghusband.com)
    hilosophers for many years had been trying to figure out if we could even know truth.  It seems obvious to us that we can know truth, but this is after many years of Christian thought in Western Civilization.
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    We think we have truth because we have the Bible, but the Bible is difficult to understand in many places.  So, we act like we have truth, but what we might really have is a disagreement on what the Bible actually says.  We also dismiss others who aren’t Christians as if they don’t know anything.  They certainly have a disadvantage, but they can also teach us.  God does give truth to those who authentically seek it;  even non-Christians.
  • 9 Reasons We Need the Gospels (marccortez.com)
    we’re missing out on a lot as Christians when we don’t allow us ourselves to soak in these life-changing narratives.
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    Pennington argues that one of the great values of the Gospels is that they retain the narrative emphasis of the entire biblical story. We often make the mistake of thinking that the OT was all about stories, but in the NT we shift to doctrine and ideas. In the Gospels, however, we’re reminded that the NT is the climax of a much larger story.
  • Armor of God Series: “Sword of the Spirit” (ptl2010.com)
    The Bible isn’t like a book that you read once and that’s it. There is power in God’s Word. When we feed our minds and hearts the Word of God, it gives us power in our spirits. 2 Corinthians 10:4 says, “The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds.”God’s Word tears down strongholds that we don’t know exist until we are in His Word. Hebrews 4:12 says, “For the word of God is living and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart.”
  • Fallacies of a contingent God (realevang.wordpress.com)
    For a Christian apologist like Pastor Feinstein, however, the most important part is the declaration that “I argue from the outset for the Christian position only.” Consequently, that is the part he follows up on, rather than on the logical requirements.I hold to the historic Christian faith as elucidated from the Christian canon (the 66 books of the Protestant Bible). Yes, I am defending a theological position, but Christianity is more than just a theology, it is also a philosophy. It holds a position about ultimate reality (metaphysics), possesses a distinct view of knowledge (epistemology), and it contains a system of moral and ethical absolutes (metaethics).None of that is true, actually. Even if we imagined that there was ever one singular “historic Christian faith,” and that it was contained in the 66 books of the Protestant Bible, you cannot get Pastor Feinstein’s philosophy by putting together any combination of Bible quotes. Pastor Feinstein’s philosophy is the work of a number of latter day Protestant philosophers putting together a philosophy (and in fact a distinctly Western philosophy) whose more or less openly acknowledged goal is to try and justify some version or other of some alleged “historic Christian faith.” It’s a commentary about the Bible, not the text of the Bible itself.

19 thoughts on “Finding and Understanding Words and Meanings

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